For Current Students

This document was adapted and expanded upon from that of my graduate advisor (your academic grandparent), Dr. Jennifer J. Freyd.

WSU also has its own Guidelines for Good Practices in Graduate Education.

"Being overworked isn’t a virtue or work ethic to be admired." --Sneha Krishnan


  • Introduction to JG
  • Things I Strive to be as a Mentor & Advisor
  • Things I Strive to do as a Mentor & Advisor
  • What Are My Expectations for Students Who Are Working with Me?
  • HOPE Lab Dynamics
  • My Advice for Students
  • Mandatory Reporting
  • Resources

Introduction to JG

Note: More about me can be found on my faculty and professional websites. You can also follow me on Twitter, @JenniferMGmez1.

Curriculum Vitae

I, Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez (JG), am an Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology and Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute for Child & Family Development (MPSI).

As faculty, my job responsibilities include:

  • Research (from data collection and analysis to manuscript writing; giving talks in the U.S. and abroad; and engaging in public scholarship)
  • Teaching undergraduate and graduate courses
  • Advising and mentoring undergraduates, graduate students, and postdocs at WSU and other universities
  • Service (institute, departmental, and university committees, including the Psychology Diversity Committee and students’ master’s and dissertation committees; field service, including serving on journal Editorial Boards)
  • Running my research laboratory
  • Developing professional relationships with community agencies here in Detroit
  • As new faculty, getting my office and lab set up (e.g., purchasing computers, chairs, etc. from my start up funds)
  • Generally, specifically, and consistently working towards social justice and equity for all
  • Being a happy lady in all facets of my personal and professional life

I truly love all of the different responsibilities I have, though one of my favorite things to do is mentor and advise students because:

Being available to my own graduate students, as well as students across the Department of Psychology and MPSI, is a top priority for me. As advising and mentoring students is not my only responsibility, however, I have put together this page to share expectations.

Things I Strive to be as a Mentor and Advisor

  • Supportive
  • Responsive
  • Flexible (“every hand needs a different glove” approach; basics are the same throughout—e.g., communication is key—but I adapt based on the needs and wants of each student)
  • Open/curious
  • Committed
  • Safe (to bring up concerns and uncomfortable topics, including issues students are having with their course work, clinical work, research, myself, etc.)

Things I Strive to do as a Mentor and Advisor

  • Provide critical feedback
  • Be receptive to feedback
  • Have a forward gaze (paying attention to where you want to be and what you will need to get there)
  • Relay and provide opportunities for professional growth
  • Provide guidance

Follow Up: Why do I like to give critical feedback?

  • We are in service of the populations we serve, as researchers, teachers, and clinicians; therefore, our work should be the best it can be
  • I believe you can do your best
  • I believe your best will keep improving over time
  • I believe in you as a thinker, scholar, and person
  • I am invested in helping you develop and grow

What Are My Expectations for Students Who Are Working with Me?


Being Responsible/Responsive

For my graduate students in particular—but also for any graduate students who have a working relationship with me (e.g., mentorship committee; letter of recommendation writer, etc.): it is very important for you to respond to a question, query, or message I send in a timely manner.

For my graduate students, that means responding to me within 24 hours on business days (Monday – Friday, excluding holidays). If I ask you a question you do not know the answer to, respond that you do not know. If I send you resources or information, respond with a simple “Got it!” or “Thank you!”, etc. Please refrain from not responding at all. If you will be out of communication for any reason, it is your responsibility to let me know once you know, remind me just before you leave, and set up an automatic away message on your Wayne State email.

Though the advisor/advisee and mentor/mentee relationships are asymmetric due to our differences in roles and power, it is still a two-way relationship. Your advisor/mentor (that is me, JG!) is not only here to serve your needs and yours alone. It is expected that you will actively engage in fostering a healthy, communicative relationship. This means being responsive as detailed above, being respectful, coming to meetings on time and prepared (more on that below), asking questions when you have them, and keeping me updated on your progress in your classes, your clinical work, your research, etc.

Why is open communication so important to me?

For us to foster a healthy mentorship/advising relationship.

Important: If I don’t know, I can’t help!

If you are having problems, confusion, etc., I cannot provide guidance if I do not know about it. It is always your choice as to what and how much to disclose to me (e.g., I will not demand that you tell me secrets you don’t want me to know!). However, an open, responsible, responsive, communicative relationship will mean that you are able to assert your needs, and I will be able to do my best to help guide and support you.

Tip: If there’s something going on in your personal life that you do not feel comfortable sharing, you could say, “I am going through something right now personally. I don’t want or need to talk about the details of it. But I wanted to let you know that I may be a bit distracted and slower on doing work while I’m dealing with it.”

Getting a Response from JG


Email is often the quickest way to get a hold of me, as I tend to answer emails quickly. For my graduate students, I aim to respond to emails within 24 hours on business days. If I am going to be out of communication for any reason, I will let my students know and will have an away message up on my Wayne State email.

If you want a response or feedback on a document that is longer than about a page, please give me both a hard copy and an electronic version (more on this below).

Individual Meetings

In addition to lab meetings, I will meet with my graduate students regularly. Other departmental/MPSI graduate students are welcome to contact me to set up a time to meet for drop-in or more regular meetings. I will do my best to accommodate these requests as my schedule permits. Meetings can take place in one of my offices, my lab, or in taking a walk. All students are responsible for keeping track of what is discussed in our meetings—including deadlines, topics to follow up on, etc.

Coming to Meetings On Time & Prepared

In preparation to meet with me (outside of office hours), students should:

  • Email me the morning-of to confirm the meeting; without such confirmation, I will consider the meeting canceled (this is to avoid the time wasted waiting for no-shows)
  • Have a plan of what will be discussed
  • Be prepared (e.g., if a first meeting to discuss research, have reviewed my website: ; have prepared questions, points of discussion, topics, etc.)
  • Be on time; communicate if you will be running late

To have efficient meetings, it is incumbent on students to take ownership over their own knowledge and growth. Being prepared, having a plan, and having a clear sense of the goals of the meeting will make our time together: mutually beneficial; you will be more likely to get what you need from me and our meeting; and you will communicate respect of the time and expertise of your grad advisor/mentor (me!).

What to Do After Meetings

It is your responsibility to keep track of what is discussed in our meetings, what your follow up steps are, and getting any answers or clarifications you need from me.

Scheduling Committee Meetings

When you need to schedule an advising or mentorship committee meeting for a semester, begin planning at the beginning of the semester. (Wrangling a bunch of busy faculty members can be time-consuming!). Please follow these steps to schedule:

  • Write to JG with your available times
  • JG writes back with overlapping available times
  • THEN write the rest of the committee, cc-ing JG, with just the times that you and I are both available. I recommend using Doodle or another scheduling software for the last step

Papers, Documents, Forms, and Other Written Things


  • GIVE ME BOTH a HARD COPY (not required during COVID-19 pandemic) and ELECTRONIC COPY of documents, presentations, etc.
  • ALLOW ME 2 WEEKS to review whenever possible.

More detail: Providing me with both hard and electronic copies aids in me being able to provide feedback in a timely manner. As a general rule, do NOT wait until the last minute to send me something! It is quite possible that if you wait till the last minute, I will not be able to review the paper, write the letter of recommendation, approve the Abstract for submission, etc. I recommend giving me TWO WEEKS to review something. The reason is there will likely be times where multiple students need feedback from me simultaneously, in addition to my own deadlines. This is particularly true at crunch times (e.g., late Fall term, as Letter of Recommendation season).

Materials you send me to review should include contextual information so that I know what it is. For papers and manuscripts, this includes:

  • A cover page with authorship, date, title/working title, word count, intended journal or outlet, any word limits, any deadlines
  • Both hard and electronic copies
  • Descriptive file name (e.g., instead of “master’s thesis”, “Last NameThesisVariablesDateInitials of last person to edit”, so “GómezManuCBTT hallucinations8.12.19JG”)
  • Page numbers throughout
  • Double-spaced

Feedback on Papers, etc.

My goal is to get you feedback on manuscripts, presentations, etc., within 2 weeks of you giving it to me. (Note: potential departmental exceptions to theses and dissertations).

Letters of Recommendation

For letters of recommendation, I usually will need:

  • 4 weeks notice (but: best to tell me as soon as you know)
  • Materials, such as copy of the application essay, description of the award
  • How to submit
  • A document describing highlights of your fanciness and our relationship (e.g., been an RA for 1 year; this GPA; you saw me give this talk for X conference, etc.)
  • Your CV

Tight Timeline

If you discover that you are not going to be able to get me something to review 2 weeks of a deadline--or 4 week for letters of rec, let me know as soon as possible. Note: even for big events (a conference, a thesis, a dissertation, a manuscript for a special issue), you are responsible for keeping yourself and me accountable for deadlines. Meaning, do not assume that if I have not received a document that needs review that I am calculating the accelerated turn-around time—not for lack of caring, but for juggling my own + my students' deadlines.

HOPE Lab Dynamics

This is a Living Guide on Structure, Expectations, and Norms for Members of the HOPE Lab
Current version created by PI Jennifer M. Gómez, Ph.D. (JG), 15 June 2020, and last updated 6 August 2020

JG PI: Tier System

  • Tier 1: All members help on Research Design (for sub-studies), IRB, Data Collection, and Open Science Framework when applicable
  • Tier 2: Sub-groups work on studies
    (e.g., JG, Student A, & Student B for Study 1; JG, student C, student D for Study 2, etc.)

Working Groups

  • Start of Year HOPE Planning Mtg, including yearly goals, semester goals, monthly goals, weekly goals
  • Start of Year 1on1 Research Program Mtg, including refining research trajectory, interests, etc.
  • HOPE student-led/student-only regular working group mtgs (~weekly)
  • HOPE parallel working group mtg (~monthly)


As HOPE student lab members, one of your greatest resources is each other. I encourage you to reach out to each other, regularly meet, become friends, co-create a shared support system, lean on each other, and be there for each other. You all are in this together.


  • Includes information provided in the Current Students section of
  • Attend and actively participate in all HOPE Lab mtgs
  • Schedule and attend Tier 2 Sub-Group Mtgs, as necessary
  • Present research at HOPE lab mtg(s)
  • Research Goal: Conference Presentations
  • Research Goal: Manuscript Publications
  • Provide Short Bio & Pic for website
  • Note: If you have safety or privacy concerns re your photo, affiliation, etc. being shared on website, please discuss with JG


  • Includes information provided in the Current Students section of


  • Collaborative
  • Supportive
  • Humble
  • Hardworking
  • Intellectually Curious
  • Relationally Healthy
  • Wants to contribute to a healthy, supportive, collegial, and collaborative lab environment


  • Operate with Scientific Integrity
  • Note: Up-to-date CITI training is the "floor"; we want scientific integrity to the "ceiling"
  • Responsive (see Being Responsible/Responsive section, under Current Students section of
  • Communicate concerns with PI, as necessary/relevant
  • Communicate concerns with other HOPE lab members, as necessary/relevant
  • Communicate with respect to all lab members
  • Be willing and excited to learn
  • Be responsive to feedback
  • Ask for help when you need it--from PI, from other HOPE lab members
  • Own up to mistakes
  • Correct mistakes
  • Talk early and as often as necessary on roles and authorship
  • Note: Authorship may change over the course of working on a project, but the goal is that nothing is a surprise, everyone is on the same page, and roles, responsibilities, and authorship is clear and fair
  • Frame research through inequality lens (e.g., gendered violence, racism, homophobia, Islamaphobia, etc.)
  • Be mindful of and grapple with issues of power
  • Note: This includes JG to students, senior students to junior students, senior lab members to junior lab members, graduate students to undergraduate students, and societal power (e.g., due to systemic inequality, which can complicate academic power structures)
  • Do not abuse power
  • Co-create healthy, supportive, collegial, collaborative lab environment

Lab Meetings

Lab meeting attendance is expected of my graduate students. These lab meetings are good times to get me to sign forms or ask me quick questions. When you are scheduled to make a presentation at the lab meeting, it is important for you to work with me in developing the presentation. This includes discussing the topic to present, sending me powerpoint slides and/or handouts to review, etc. For us to have time to review and revise content, such material should be to me at least 2 weeks before you are scheduled to present.

On all presentations and handouts should be your name, as well as the name of all collaborators, acknowledgements to those who have provided help or feedback, the date, and usually a disclaimer that explains that the information is preliminary and should not be cited or shared beyond the lab meeting.

One last tip: It is important to openly acknowledge collaborative work (as most research is collaborative). When discussing such research, always use the plural rather than singular (“our study” vs. “my study”, etc.). If in doubt, ask me and/or err on the side of sharing credit.

How to Communicate Concerns and/or Address Conflict in the HOPE Lab

Concerns and conflicts are inevitable, and even healthy, on teams. Importantly, concerns and conflicts do not have to be toxic or unnecessarily hurtful, combative, or aggressive.

Taken from JG's colleague, development psychologist, data scientist, and data ethicist, Dr. Jacob Levernier, here are tips on what to do/not to do when addressing concerns and conflicts in the HOPE lab--including concerns and conflicts you have with JG.

Avoid This
Cure Notice:
“I’m concerned that _____. Please cure your defective performance and fix this by doing _____. [Or corrective action will be taken].”

A Cure Notice is taken from construction. Boss tells construction workers that X building has a defect, so fix it now or I, as Boss, will take action against you.

Why isn’t this ideal for communicating concerns and/or addressing conflict?

  • It lacks humility—aka, presumes the concerned party knows all information and full scope of the issue, while simultaneously being the only one who knows the solution
  • It takes a power-over, as opposed to collaborative, approach to problem-solving
  • It increases the likelihood of defensiveness
  • It decreases the likelihood of the issue being amicably and collegially resolved
  • It can interfere with the healthy lab environment, even after the issue has been resolved

Do This Instead
“I’m concerned that _____. Could we talk through that concern and try to find a way to address it?”

Why is this a better approach to communicating concerns and/or addressing conflict?

  • It communicates an understanding of the complexity of a given issue—including that there could be multiple facets that are unknown to the concerned party, as well as multiple ways to address it moving forward
  • It takes a power-with (collaborative) approach
  • It explicitly places everyone on the same side: Now, we all have the same goal of addressing the concern/conflict together
  • It decreases the likelihood of defensiveness and combativeness
  • It increases the likelihood of the issue being resolved without toxicity, unnecessary hurt feelings, etc.
  • It’s a Team-Builder: We are each responsible for contributing to the culture and climate of the team, so relevant parties work together to resolve issues as they arise


Defining the Roles of Authors and Contributors (aka, authorship) is guided by the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (2018):

  • Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  • Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  • Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  • Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

HOPE Conferences, Talks, Lab Members' Presentations

HOPE lab members are expected to attend and be engaged for HOPE lab members' talks and presentations, including at conferences, virtual locations, departmental requirements, across campus, and in the community when possible.

  • Conferences: HOPE lab members should attend HOPE invited/plenary talks, paper presentations, symposia, and poster presentations at conferences they are participating in
  • Virtual Presentations: HOPE lab members should attend HOPE virtual plenary/invited talks, paper presentations, symposia, and poster presentations that are held virtually
  • Departmental Requirements: HOPE lab members should attend HOPE students' thesis and dissertation defenses, departmental colloquia, etc.
  • Across campus: HOPE lab members should attend HOPE talks given at WSU.
  • Community: HOPE lab members should make efforts to attend HOPE talks given in the community when possible.
  • If you are unable to attend (e.g., sickness, out of town, conflict with class, clinical, or work schedule, parenting responsibilities, etc.), let JG and the presenter(s) know ahead of time
  • HOPE talks outside of regular business hours are optional
  • If you have a concern about attending a HOPE presentation (e.g., you are having a conflict with the presenter), let JG know.

My Advice for Students

  • Be organized and efficient:The better you are at managing your time, the more cool stuff you get to do!
  • Have internal deadlines in advance of external deadlines: When you plan to have tasks, drafts, presentation practice, etc. done in advance, it provides you with wiggle room when life happens (e.g., family tragedy, sickness, etc.)--thus allowing you to still be ahead of the game (or at least on the game) and not behind
  • If you don’t know something, think and then ask, if needed
  • If you are scared that you’re bad at something, seek it out: E.g., If you’re scared of public speaking, don’t spend 5 years avoiding public speaking. Take the opportunity to practice, grow, and learn
  • Take ownership over your own learning, professional development, and advancement
  • Come prepared
  • Take notes: Take notes and write questions down during meetings, talks, classes, etc. This helps you stay engaged and on track, be prepared to speak, and "have a conversation with yourself" even in situations where you aren't able to share your thoughts (e.g., large plenary talk).
  • Behave as if you believe in yourself, even when you don’t: e.g., keep trying as if it's possible that you could be successful
  • No one mentor or advisor can be everything you need: Get a mentorship network
  • Admit to yourself when you have made a mistake or series of mistakes
  • When not relationally unsafe, admit to others when you make a mistake or series of mistakes: E.g., Tell me!
  • Prioritize your full self: You are more than a disembodied brain
  • Work in a way that develops good, sustainable habits: If you don't want to do all-nighters in your career, don't do them now. Practice and learn how to work in a way that is sustainable for you + leads to success
  • Live in accordance with your values: If you want to be a socially-responsible, DEI, social justice-oriented professional, engage in such efforts now--through research, teaching, publications, and service
  • Avoid the perfectionism trap: A great way to get nothing done is to be so afraid of doing it wrong that you either don't start it or don't finish it. Spoiler alert: you will make mistakes. Don't let that fact sabotage you, your progress, and your goals
  • Engage in Camaraderie vs. Competition: It is a net positive to have brilliant colleagues. They, with their sheer presence, push you to do better. There is also a bidirectional exchange of knowledge--what one knows, everyone can know. This is different than competition, which can lead to toxic, unproductive comparisons ("They're so much better than me..."; or "I'm so much better than them!"). Foster camaraderie and avoid competition, understanding that each of us has strengths, each of us gets to take turns giving and learning, and there is room enough for each of us to shine.
  • Say Thank You!: Faculty and staff do a LOT to help students. Often, we don’t know if our efforts are actually helpful. So: if faculty or staff (or a peer! Or anyone!) has done something that has been useful to you (e.g., brought in a great speaker; given great guidance in a meeting, etc.), a simple Thank You is not only appreciated, but also helps the person tailor their efforts to you, thus resulting in doing more of the things that are helpful for you

Mandatory Reporting

The issue of mandated reporting of campus sexual violence has received considerable attention for the greater part of a decade. There are varying views on the appropriateness of blanket mandated reporting (see Dr. Freyd’s website with compiled resources and my own scholarly opinion piece that I wrote as a graduate student in 2016).

Universities also have various interpretations of what Title IX federal legislation actually requires regarding reporting.

Here is WSU’s current rules, from our Title IX Office website:

"Mandatory reporting – Responsible Employees

Wayne State University faculty and staff are considered Responsible Employees and are obligated to promptly report incidents of sexual misconduct. The only exception is confidential employees in Counseling and Psychological Services and the Campus Health Center.

Consistent with Wayne State's obligations under federal law, Wayne State is required to notify a student who reports having experienced sexual misconduct by another student, a faculty member or a staff member of the university, that the student has the option to report the matter to law enforcement, to the university, to both, or to neither, as the student may choose.

Regardless of what course of action the student chooses, Wayne State faculty and staff who know of or have received information about a sexual misconduct or potential sexual misconduct incident that occurred on campus, in a university program, or at a university-sponsored event, must promptly report that incident to the Title IX Director so that Wayne State can fulfil its institutional obligations. Your knowledge is the university's knowledge. When in doubt, report it.

In light of this mandatory reporting requirement, it is important for faculty and staff to know that if a student reports an incident to you, you cannot promise confidentiality and should inform the student that you are required to report the incident to the Title IX Director. Once reported, for the privacy of the parties involved, it should not be discussed with anyone else.

Wayne State is still obligated to investigate, even where the student chooses not to report or where the student is unwilling or reluctant to participate in an investigation. Wayne State will proceed in a way that takes into account the concerns of the student survivor/victim and Wayne State's responsibility to provide a safe and non-discriminatory environment to the entire campus community.”


As WSU faculty, I am obligated to report information I know of or have received regarding sexual misconduct or potential sexual misconduct that: 1) occurred on campus, in a university program, or at a university sponsored event; and/or 2) that was perpetrated by a member of the university (student, staff, faculty) to the Title IX coordinator, regardless of the student’s wishes. Please keep this in mind should you choose to share such information with me.

WSU has provided a resource page for students.

Note: I have no experience with the above resources.


If going to or from campus at odd hours (e.g., very early morning, late at night), there is the WSU Police Department's Safe Walk Program. It's free. Call 313-577-2222, and police will escort you to your car or residence.

For more information about WSU Police and Safety at Wayne, see website

For Prospective Students

Recruiting Students

I, Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez, am an Assistant Professor in Clinical Psychology and the Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute for Child & Family Development (MPSI) at Wayne State University in Detroit.

I will not be recruiting graduate student(s) for the clinical psychology Ph.D. program, Fall 2021. Consequently, I likely will not be able to respond to prospective students' emails this cycle.


Deadline for applications: 1 December 2020

Last Year's (2019-2020) Timeline:

  • 1 December 2019: deadline
  • End of January 2020: invitation to campus interviews
  • Clinical Campus Interview Day: 28 February 2020
  • Alternate Clinical Campus Interview Day: 21 February 2020

Curriculum Vitae

Note: Due to the volume of emails I receive, I will not be able to evaluate applicants prior to their formal application. See below to help determine if our program and myself as an advisor could be a good fit for your interests and goals.

The HOPE Lab

  • Prospective students can also review the Current Students section of my website to gain more information.

We use Cultural Betrayal Trauma Theory (CBTT) as a framework for researching the impact of violence in the context of inequality primarily in youth and young adults in order to identify avenues of hope & healing for individuals, families, communities, and society.

PI: Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez

Data Analysis

Validation study of the Cultural Betrayal Multidimensional Inventory for Black American Young Adults (ages 18-29). The validation manuscripts will likely be spoken for, but data with the various measures (cultural betrayal trauma, mental health outcomes, internalized prejudice, racial identity, etc.) will be rife for projects.

Collaborators: Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez & Dr. Lars Johnson

Data Collection

CBTT, Suicidality, Disclosure, & Coping in Black, South Asian, and White Young Adults

Collaborators/Intellectual Contributors: Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez, Dr. Sierra Carter, and graduate students--Daeja Marzette, Zuni Jilani, and Ifrah Sheikh

Data Collection

Cultural Betrayal Trauma as a Novel Social Determinant of Cardiovascular Disease among Urban African American Elders

Co-PIs: Dr. Samuele Zilioli & Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez

Data Set

CBTT in Diverse College Students of Color

PI: Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez

Upcoming Projects
  1. CBTT in Multiracial Youth and Young Adults

Collaborators: Graduate student, Daeja Marzette, and Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez

  1. Betrayal & Sexual Abuse in the Catholic Church

Collaborators: Undergraduate student, Rachel Zelenak, and Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez

Research Opportunities

Graduate students are involved in research through:

  • collaborating on current projects
  • adding measures to data collections
  • earning the opportunity to lead projects that incorporate constructs of interest with a focus on CBTT in marginalized youth and young adults.

Sample Questions for Campus Visit Interviews

To help all applicants be on equal footing in preparing for the campus visit, below are sample questions for the 30-45 minute interview with me:

Welcome! How has the day been so far?

We have a relatively short amount of time, so we can dive right in. I’m going to ask you a few questions, and then we’ll hold space at the end for you to ask me questions. This is designed for us to get to know each other, not to be an interrogation!

These things will evolve, but at this moment:

  • What research projects are you most excited about doing—from limitations you’ve noticed in the work on CBTT so far to directions to take?
  • Why Me as advisor?
  • Why Wayne State?
  • What would your ideal relationship with your graduate advisor be?/What are you looking for in your graduate advisor?
  • What kind of career do you want to have after you earn your Ph.D.?
  • What questions do you have for me?

Wayne State University Department of Psychology

The Department of Psychology at the research-intensive (R1) Wayne State University provides a broad spectrum of graduate education that prepares students for careers in both academic and applied settings. The department has five doctoral programs in: (1) Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience, (2) Clinical Psychology, (3) Developmental Science, (4) Industrial/Organizational Psychology, and (5) Social-Personality Psychology.

Our graduates have careers as research scientists, scholar-teachers at colleges or universities, and professionals in business and industry, health care, schools, community organizations, and government agencies. We have a dynamic and dedicated faculty with wide ranging interests and active research programs in almost all areas of psychology, including: trajectories of homeless youth; violence victimization in marginalized populations; racial and sexual harassment within organizations; cognitive and behavioral neuroscience; substance abuse; memory; relationships; lifespan development; infant and child mental health; and many more. The department fosters collaborations with research institutes across the university, including the Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute for Child & Family Development and the Institute of Gerontology.

Wayne State University is located in Metropolitan Detroit, a historic city that served as a final stop for the Underground Railroad prior to crossing the Detroit River into Canada. The Department of Psychology serves a racially, ethnically, economically, and religiously diverse student body. Wayne State University is located in the Museum District, near art and historic sites, including the Detroit Institute of Arts, Charles Wright Museum of African American History, Detroit Historical Museum, Detroit Opera House, and the Detroit Symphony Orchestra.

The Department of Psychology is committed to promoting diversity and inclusion in our students, faculty, staff, and in the broader communities we serve (including substantial Black/African American and Arab/Chaldean populations). With faculty, staff, and graduate student members, the mission of the department's Diversity Committee is to ensure that diversity, in all its forms, is respected and valued. The department is engaged in fostering and maintaining an open, non-discriminatory, and empowering environment of inclusiveness within the Psychology Department through advocacy, programming, training, and assessment of diversity issues. Graduate students have the opportunity to gain mentorship skills through the Mentoring Undergraduate Students towards Excellence (MUSE) Program. This program is sponsored by the Diversity Committee and helps undergraduate students from typically underrepresented/minority groups and first-generation college students navigate their paths to psychology graduate programs.

Applications for the Graduate Program are due December 1, 2019, with interviews in February 2020.

Awards My Graduate Students Have Won

Wayne State University Dean's Diversity Fellowship
Daeja Marzette (2019)

Wayne State University Graduate School & Division of Research $1,000 Grant to supplement her research activities. This award is based on her submitting a grant application to the Ford Foundation Fellowship Program, administered by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, & Medicine (NASEM; Pre-Doctoral Fellowship: $81,000).

Graduate Programs with a Trauma Psychology Focus

  • Wayne State University (Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez; Dr. Antonia Abbey, non-clinical).
  • University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (community health, Dr. Robyn Gobin)
  • University of Georgia (Dr. Isha Metzger)
  • University of Denver (Dr. Anne Deprince)
  • Oregon State University (non-clinical only; Dr. Kathy Becker-Blease)
  • University of Tulsa (Dr. Lisa Cromer)
  • University of Regina (Dr. Bridget Klest)
  • University of California, Santa Cruz (non-clinical only; contact Dr. Eileen Zurbriggen)
  • University of California, San Diego (contact Dr. Carolyn Allard)
  • Alliant University (contact Dr. Constance Dalenberg)
  • Nova Southeastern University (contact Dr. Steve Gold)
  • Western Washington University (Master's degree only; Dr. Brianna Delker)
  • Towson University (Master's degree only; contact Dr. Bethany Brand)
  • Penn State-Erie (Master's in Applied Clinical Psychology, Dr. Melanie Hetzel-Riggin)
  • APA-Div 56's list of trauma psychology graduate programs
  • ISSTD's list of academic supervisors with trauma focus

Resources on Applying to Graduate School

Advice for Marginalized Students on Choosing a Ph.D. Program

8 Tips for Standing Out as a Grad School Applicant

How to Ace a Grad School Application

Ten Tips for Students to Succeed in College


Jennifer M. Gómez, Ph.D.

Curriculum Vitae

I am an Assistant Professor in the Wayne State University (WSU) Department of Psychology and Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute for Child & Family Development (MPSI).

I earned my Ph.D. in psychology from University of Oregon in 2017. I completed a postdoctoral fellowship in the WSU Postdoctoral to Faculty Transition Fellowship (PFT) Program at MPSI in 2019.

I am a MCUAAAR Research Scientist (2020), Ford Fellow (Dissertation, 2015-16; Postdoctoral, 2018-19), National Academy of Sciences Kavli Fellow (2019), co-editor of the special issue of Journal of Trauma & Dissociation— [JTD] Self Injury & Suicidality: The Impact of Trauma & Dissociation (2015), and lead co-editor of the upcoming special issue of JTD, Discrimination, Violence, & Healing in Marginalized Communities. I am also on the Board of Directors and the Chair of the Research Committee of the Center for Institutional Courage non-profit organization dedicated to transforming institutional approaches and responses to trauma and inequality. Lastly, I am a Board Member and Cultural Liaison in the Metro Detroit Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi).

I aim for my research--detailed below and in the Cultural Betrayal Trauma Theory section--to have an impact both within and outside of academia. Consequently, I have published over 60 peer-reviewed journal articles, book chapters, scholarly writings, and pieces for the general public.

Prior to attending college, I was a professional ballet dancer with Dance Theatre of Harlem.

My research focuses on the effects of interpersonal trauma (e.g., physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) in diverse populations. In proposing cultural betrayal trauma theory, I include interpersonal trauma in conjunction with discrimination to examine mental health outcomes.

For example, in cultural betrayal trauma theory, I propose that if a Black girl is sexually assaulted by a Black man, the outcomes of this trauma, such as PTSD, are impacted by both the victim and perpetrator experiencing discrimination in society.

With cultural betrayal trauma theory, I examine the differential impact of inequality for minority victims of trauma that may contribute to urban disparities. With this work, I hope to both document harm and identify avenues of hope and healing for youth, families, communities, institutions, and society.

Short article on Cultural Betrayal Trauma Theory from The Conversation: The Unique Harm of Sexual Abuse in the Black Community.


Twitter: @JenniferMGmez1


Curriculum Vitae

-- alt

From the 2020 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) 157th Annual Meeting- Picture from NAS' U.S. Kavli Frontiers of Sciences Symposium

Researchers, Left to Right:
Dr. Sarah Tuttle, Astronomer
Dr. Kathryn Clancey, Anthropologist
Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez, Trauma Psychologist
Dr. Rebecca Calisi Rodríguez, Neuroscientist
Dr. Lauren O'Connell, Biologist
Dr. Sushmita Roy, Computational Biologist
Dr. Hannah Wakeford, Astronomer
Dr. Eden King, I/O Psychologist

National Endowment for the Humanities Grant

With the Michigan Opera Theatre as the PI, Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez is a special advisor on the $175,000 National Endowment for the Humanities Grant, Transformation through the Arts.

As such, Dr. Gómez is involved in multiple panel discussions that will be filmed and freely available in late 2020 and early 2021 regarding the ballet Passage, Dance Theatre of Harlem and legendary co-founder Arthur Mitchell, and how the arts can help us all heal from violence and racism.

November 2020

National Endowment of the Arts (NEA) Grant

With Eisenhower Dance Detroit (EDD) as the PI, Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez is research consultant of the $10,000 National Endowment of the Arts (NEA) Arts Project Grant, The Transparency Project.

As such, she is collaborating with EDD on a research study that will assess audience members' perceptions of contemporary dance and their role as patrons of the arts.

November 2020

APHA 2020 Betty Cleckley Minority Issues Research Award

Dr. DeAnnah Byrd, Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez, and Dr. Lisa Ficker won the American Public Health Association Aging & Public Health Section 2020 Betty Cleckley Minority Issues Research Award for our manuscript, “Is It All About Racism? The Role of Avoidant Coping on Cardiovascular Health & Blood Pressure in Older Blacks."

The purpose of the award is to recognize individuals in aging and public health research who have made a significant impact on the lives of older people who are members of minority groups. Minimizing health disparities and improving access to health and long-term care services are important issues for minority populations in the U.S.

November 2020

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, & Medicine Sexual Harassment in Higher Ed Summit

Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez gave a talk and co-authored a poster at the 2nd Annual National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, & Medicine Action Collaborative to Prevent & Address Sexual Harassment in Higher Ed Summit

Talk: Cultural Betrayal Sexual Harassment Against Black Undergraduates: Implications for Addressing Power & Inequality in Higher Ed, beginning at 2:41, (Gómez, 2020)

Poster: Sexual Harassment & The Sciences: How The Data Can Inform Local & National Policy (Albright, Gómez, & Martinez, 2020)

October 2020

Forbes Magazine

Interviewed for Jessica Gold's article in Forbes Magazine, 8 Things Mental Health Experts Want You To Know On World Mental Health Day.

"According to Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez, Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology and Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute for Child & Family Development (MPSI) at Wayne State University, having good mental health does not mean you are happy all of the time. She pointed out that a wide range of emotions from sadness to anger to grief are “integral parts to being alive.” Listing many triggers in our environment including Covid-19 and police violence, Dr. Gómez noted that reacting happily after experiencing any of those things directly or indirectly would be abnormal. She added, 'If you’re struggling, there’s nothing inherently wrong with you.'"

October 2020

Count 9 Podcast: From Ballerina to Professor

Interviewed by Ben Goodly for his Count 9 podcast regarding the career transition from professional ballet dancer with Dance Theatre of Harlem to the academic career as an assistant professor, researcher, and trauma psychologist at Wayne State University.

What I learned " from Mr. Mitchell: buck against the system. Of just you cannot, cannot wait for things to be equal enough and for oppression to be eradicated. And wait for me to walk in the room as a Black woman and have people assume I'm a professor before I get up to speak. I cannot wait for those things to happen. I have to just do it anyways. And I think it's the biggest lesson from him and then from what he's done with Dance Theatre of Harlem, that you just do it anyways. And when you're doing it anyways, change is happening. Things do become more equal by your presence of just kind of pretending that you belong and that people want you here. Even when you're not sure that's true, because of racism or sexism."--Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez

September 2020

WSU Academy of Scholars Junior Faculty Award

Won a 2020 Wayne State University Academy of Scholars Outstanding Junior Faculty Award.

"The Academy of Scholars is committed to recognizing outstanding excellence in scholarship and in creative achievement of the faculty members at Wayne State University. The Academy's founding purpose was and has remained to raise the scholastic prestige of the university by bringing the most prominent academic experts to campus under its aegis and to create a community of scholars from among its most celebrated researchers...This [Outstanding Junior Faculty] award is given annually on the basis of outstanding academic accomplishments to 3 or 4 junior faculty members...You were selected from a group of excellent candidates based on their nomination dossiers and independent evaluation letters, which our selection committee collected."

August 2020

APA Division 56 Award

Along with Dr. Joan Cook, awarded the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 56 2020 Award for Media Contributions to the Field of Trauma Psychology.

"This award recognizes the creators of media presentations for lay audiences that educate the public in a scientifically sound manner about the psychology of trauma."

August 2020

NBC News

Interviewed for Danielle Campoamor's article in NBC News, Coronavirus Catcalling Is Real. Mask or No Mask, Harassment Is All About Power:

“'Street harassment, like all forms of sexual and gender violence, are fundamentally about power and reinforcing inequality,' Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez, a trauma psychologist and assistant professor in psychology at Wayne State University, said. 'Sexualizing a woman or girl in public through street harassment reduces her to an object for others' consumption. Meaning, she is stripped of her full humanity and instead reduced to simply a physical or sexual thing whose purpose is men's pleasure.'"

July 2020

Shape Magazine

Interviewed for Mallory Creveling's article in Shape Magazine, How to Tap Into Your 5 Senses to Find Peace and Be Present:

"'[Grounding techniques] help to remind you physically and physiologically of where you are,' says Jennifer M. Gómez, Ph.D., assistant professor in the department of psychology and Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute for Child & Family Development at Wayne State University. 'It's like a release—a switch to turn off the light on all the stress and to be in a place of less chatter and anxiety.'...Gómez and Exelbert both say those who've experienced trauma, such as sexual assault or police violence or aggression, may benefit most from this grounding technique. That's why it could be especially helpful right now, for anyone who's witnessing police brutality and biases in real-time on TV, and it's causing them to re-live a past experience. 'There can be times where you have flashbacks, a sort of movie re-playing in your head of the same event, so even though the event stopped, you might re-experience it like it's new,' explains Gómez. 'Thinking about what you're seeing, hearing, or smelling gets you into the present,' and out of the re-play."

July 2020


Interviewed for Jenna Birch's article in Huffington Post, What Not To Stay To Someone Who Has Experienced Racial Trauma:

"You can think of racial trauma as the psychological and physical impacts of racism, both interpersonal and structural, according to Jennifer M. Gómez, assistant professor of psychology at Wayne State University and a faculty member at the university’s Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute for Child & Family Development. Acts that can trigger racial trauma range from slurs and open discrimination to health care disparities and police profiling, Gómez said. Racial trauma has 'similar outcomes to domestic violence, like depression, anxiety, hypervigilance, PTSD, insomnia, physical health problems, the gamut,' she explained."

July 2020

The Hill

Encouraging Bravery & Fortitude in Dismantling the Insidious Stronghold of Racism was published in The Hill.

"The process of institutional courage needs to be intentional, deliberate, and iterative. We must acknowledge, address, and correct this oppression. We must systematically and critically take an inventory of discriminatory practices in policing, voting, education, housing, health care, and employment. And then we must act to change these practices individually, systemically, and culturally...And of course, while radical healing in communities of color can and should happen amidst oppression, we can't underestimate the value of actual change and actual equality in promoting healing for individuals, communities, and society. Thus, such institutional courage can mean that this societal moment, instead of being fleeting, is a turning point that leads us to the right side of justice and healing."--Dr. Joan Cook & Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez

July 2020

Forbes Magazine

Interviewed for Jessica Gold's article in Forbes Magazine, Feeling Anxious About Wearing A Mask? Here Are 5 Ways To Overcome It:

"Dr. Gómez says for some people with a history of trauma, like sexual abuse in childhood or domestic violence, wearing a mask may remind them of the trauma. For example, for someone who during a sexual assault was unable to breathe because the perpetrator was covering their mouth and nose, when they put on a mask, it can bring up that same fear and fright, even if they are not consciously thinking about their sexual assault. According to Dr. Gómez, 'the body remembers such traumas implicitly. So, again, your body is overreacting because it thinks you're unsafe and it wants you to do something about it.' Your body is simply protecting you...Dr. Gómez adds 'being uncomfortable, scared, or triggered is nothing to be ashamed of. All we can ask for from ourselves is to try our best. And you, your safety, and the safety of others is worth your trying and re-trying to teach your body that the mask is safe to wear.'"

July 2020 


Russell Simmons, Rape, & The Myth of 'Toxic Femininity': What Black Men Can Do To Be Part of the Solution was published in Blavity.

"This notion of Toxic Femininity makes Black women and girls responsible for Black men’s sexually abusive behavior. The truth, however, is more straightforward: Black men are responsible for their own behavior, with rape not being an inevitable by-product of Blackness or maleness. At the same time, Black women and girls are never responsible for Black men’s behavior — no matter what they say or don’t say, do or don’t do, wear or don’t wear. Black women and girls have been and continue to be sexually abused at alarmingly high rates because of people and cultural norms that perpetrate and condone such abuse — not because of anything they’re doing wrong....Many Black men do not sexually abuse anyone in any way and do not condone such behavior. What about all those Black men? What can they do?...Know that your capability of not sexually abusing anyone is the same capability that all Black men have — including those who rape. Do not provide excuses for Black men who rape."--Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez & Dr. Robyn L. Gobin.

June 2020


Interviewed for Joan Cook's article in Newsweek, The Black Lives Matter Protests Are Running on Much More Than Anger:

"The tragedies that we're witnessing are neither new nor isolated. And, of note, they haven't stopped, even though videos have made it possible for the world to be watching and condemning the government-sanctioned violence against black people in the U.S. The difference is this moral elevation, this action-oriented hope, that has resulted in so many of us coming together to fight for justice. And, at long last, for some of us to finally listen and bear witness to the anti-black hate and violence that so many of us for so many years have been sharing without being believed...What should be completely depressing engenders action-oriented hope...When truth of depravity is finally acknowledged, we discover avenues for enacting change on large and small scales. Witnessing those actions in ourselves and others gives us this moral elevation that makes life worthier of living."

June 2020

Forbes Magazine

Interviewed for Jessica Gold's article in Forbes Magazine, How To Protect Your Mental Health Even While Watching The News:

"Dr. Gómez notes that while we generally 'need' to be informed, we do not 'need' to have our sleep interrupted, to watch videos of violence and murder, or to only know of the bad things that are happening in the world. In fact, she believes we watch and keep watching, in some way looking for hope or positive news, especially currently. She adds, 'the need for hope is perhaps stronger than any other need we think we have for staying informed.'"

June 2020

InStyle Magazine

Interviewed for Kylie Gilbert's and Alexandra Whittaker's article in InStyle Magazine, How To Tell Your Boss You Need A Mental Health Day:

"Today, we again find ourselves living in a similar time of high-profile agony, from the million cuts of a work colleague remarking, in disbelief, that, as a Black person, you speak so well, to Black people getting beaten and killed in the streets and their homes with impunity...Though these realities are even older than the United States of America itself, the weight of the injustices, including deaths, can reach a level so toxic that taking care of our souls, spirits, psyches, minds, and bodies must take priority...We can fit a mental health day into a...piece that works for us."--Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez

June 2020

InStyle Magazine

Interviewed for Kylie Gilbert's article in InStyle Magazine, How To Check In On Your Black Friends & Coworkers:

"The onslaught of media and videos showing threats, beatings, and murders can be overwhelmingly painful. Because racist violence is not new, some Black people have learned how to cover up their ongoing fears, stress, and mental health problems related to racism...Reaching out is about opening a door of communication. It is up to the other person if, when, and how they’d like to go through that door with you...Remember: racism divides us. Humble, genuine solidarity can reunite us.”--Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez

June 2020

Center for Institutional Courage

Founded by nationally-renowned trauma researcher, Dr. Jennifer J. Freyd, the Center for Institutional Courage is a non-profit organization that uses research and community engagement to identify ways for organizations to engage in institutional courage, thus making them more
accountable, equitable, healthy places for everyone.

Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez is on the Board of Directors and is the Chair of the Research Advisory Committee.

March 2020

The Michigan Center for Urban African American Aging Research (MCUAAAR) Grant

Along with fellow Co-PI, Dr. Samuele Zilioli, Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez received a $25,000 MCUAAAR Grant for their study, Cultural Betrayal Trauma as a Novel Social Determinant of Cardiovascular Disease among Urban African American Elders.

March 2020

The Conversation

Weinstein trial begs a question: Why is the pain of women and minorities often ignored? was published in The Conversation, which is a news outlet for researchers to translate their work for a non-academic audience of over 10 million users.

"Cultural betrayal trauma theory explains how marginalized women pay an additional price when they experience violence at the hands of marginalized men. This is within-group violence — for instance, when a black man sexually assaults a black woman or girl. Implicit with that kind of violence is a cultural betrayal. The supposed solidarity between survivor and perpetrator against forces of discrimination is shattered.To keep that perception intact, black women are expected to cover for black men who abuse them. So they suffer in silence – otherwise, the black community, already harmed by racism, is impugned."--Dr. Anne DePrince & Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez

As of 30 August 2020, the article has over 7,000 readers.

February 2020

Michigan Humanities Council Grant

With Michigan Opera Theatre as the PI, Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez was a special advisor on the $15,000 Michigan Humanities Council Grant, Taking the Stage—The Changing Voice of Opera & Dance.

As such, Dr. Gómez gave talks about how co-founder, Arthur Mitchell, and Dance Theatre of Harlem use the arts to promote equality to The Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History, Michigan Opera Theatre, and Detroit Public Schools.


The Conversation

The Unique Harm of Sexual Abuse in the Black Community was published in The Conversation, which is a news outlet for researchers to translate their work for a non-academic audience of over 10 million users.

"The body of research to date suggests that cultural betrayal may be a unique harm within violence in minority populations, including the black community. As such, the alleged sexual traumas perpetrated by R. Kelly and Clarence Thomas have a cultural betrayal that isn’t found in Woody Allen’s alleged abuse. Moreover, black men’s death threats against Tarana Burke are (intra)cultural pressure that is laced with misogynoir, or sexism in the black community."--Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez

The research study featured in this article is Isn’t It All About Victimization? (Intra)cultural Pressure and Cultural Betrayal Trauma in Ethnic Minority College Women (Gómez, 2018).

Also published on the International Society for Research on Aggression (ISRA) Blog and Blavity, featured on Today@Wayne, and re-published by over 15 other news outlets.

As of 17 November 2020, the article has 632,200 readers.

May 2019

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, & Medicine Sexual Harassment in Higher Ed Summit

Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez was an invited plenary panelist at the 1st Annual National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, & Medicine Action Collaborative to Prevent & Address Sexual Harassment in Higher Ed Summit

Panel: Attending to How Sexual Harassment Manifests for Individuals with Marginalized Identities

19-20 November 2019

Discrimination, Violence, & Healing in Marginalized Communities

Open Call for this Special Issue of Journal of Trauma & Dissociation: Discrimination, Violence, & Healing in Marginalized Communities

Co-Editors: Jennifer M. Gómez, Ph.D., Robyn L. Gobin, Ph.D., & Melissa L. Barnes, M.S.

Goal: to understand the joint impact of discrimination and interpersonal trauma on minorities

Projected Publication: Spring 2021

Gender Discrimination: Professors Are/Not Professors

In an attempt to uphold gender discrimination, University of Oregon (UO) is insisting that professors do not hold the same job re the Freyd vs. UO lawsuit.

My response in The Register-Guard Oregon newspaper, with lots of links from the case:

"UO is actively promoting gender discrimination through its legal team’s argument that professors do not hold the same job. If upheld, this ruling has the potential to undermine equality for women and minority faculty at UO and across the nation for decades to come.

Though I can’t prevent UO from its behavior in this case, there are people at UO right now who can. From President Michael Schill to General Counsel Kevin Reed to the board of trustees. It’s not too late. UO could still choose to live up to its mission of equity and inclusion. If for no other reason, UO could remember that its reputation as a top public university is on the line. Gender equality matters at universities like UO.

The world is watching."--Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez Petition of Support for Dr. Freyd

7 November 2019

Project on Institutional Courage

Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez is the Chair of the Research Committee for Dr. Jennifer J. Freyd's Center for Institutional Courage.

This is our vision:

  • To create the world’s premier interdisciplinary research center on institutional courage
  • To create more open, honest, equitable institutions in which all people can thrive
  • To facilitate and promote breakthroughs of institutional courage around the world

January 2020

CNN Business

Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez was interviewed by Julia Carpenter for her CNN Business article, Serena Williams' Nike ad exposes the double standards women face at work.

"Women in the workplace are tasked with the additional work of managing these perceptions, Gómez says.

"So much time is spent worrying adapting your speech and figuring out what to say and how you can say it differently and that is taking away from time and energy and effort for your job," she says. "It's a job for you to figure out 'how can I say this in this meeting without people painting me in this emotion corner?' and I think the trap with that is that it's not in the woman's control."

25 February 2019

Who's Betraying Who? R. Kelly, Sexual Violence, & The Dismissal of Black Women & Girls

New piece:

"The second truth is where it seems we consistently get into trouble: The rape of Black women and girls does matter. . . As a Black female clinical psychologist, I have coined the term cultural betrayal to describe instances where violence happens within the Black community. . . Nevertheless, in these discussions of sexual violence, often what is termed “betrayal” is something quite different. . . We must ask ourselves why."--Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez

As of 24 May 2019, this article has received over 700 views.

25 August 2019

Cultural Betrayal Trauma Video

In this short video, Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez discusses Cultural Betrayal Trauma Theory and the article, Isn't It All About Victimization? (Intra)Cultural Pressure and Cultural Betrayal Trauma in Ethnic Minority College Women, which was published in Violence Against Women.

As of 14 June 2020, this video has been viewed 700 times

January 2019

National Academy of Sciences' 30th Annual U.S. Kavli Frontiers of Science

Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez received an invitation from National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to attend the NAS' 30th Annual U.S. Kavli Frontiers of Science Symposium.

This symposium series is the NAS' premiere activity for distinguished young scientists.

Attendees are selected by a committee of Academy members from among young researchers who have already made recognized contributions to science, including recipients of major national fellowships and awards and who have been identified as future leaders in science.

From Today@Wayne Press Release:
“I’m not surprised that Jennifer was invited to this high-level scientific meeting given the quality of her scholarship and her passion for groundbreaking research,” said Ambika Mathur, associate provost for STWD and dean of the Graduate School. “Being part of the Kavli Symposium and her appointment as a Ford Fellow marks an important milestone in the PFT experience at Wayne State, and we are so proud of her impressive accomplishments."

December 2018

Open Essay on Gender Discrimination, Freyd's Lawsuit, & Recommendations for Universities

Open Essay: Gender Discrimination, Dr. Jennifer Freyd's Lawsuit, & Recommendations for Universities

"There are few emotions as potent as those caused by the pain of watching someone you respect, admire, and care for be discriminated against. Understanding how this discrimination, which feels so isolated and personal, actually is endemic of academia’s dirty little secret of systemic gender discrimination—contributing to the leaky pipeline for women—is more painful still."--Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez

As of 25 August 2019, the open essay has been viewed over 700 times.

December 2018

Black Women & #MeToo

Op-ed comparing Ford/Kavanaugh with Anita Hill/Clarence Thomas: "Black Women & #MeToo: The Violence of Silencing" translates research on cultural betrayal trauma theory to the general public.

"Following a quarter of a century - from the testimonies of Anita Hill, J.D., to Dr. Christine Blasey Ford - the U.S. is still struggling: with both how not to violate women, as well as how not to silence them. More difficult still is attuning to the crosshairs that Black women additional face related to race, class, gender expression, sexual orientation, religion, disability, nation of origin, and the intersection of these and other identities. Through centralizing various forms of oppression in addressing sexual violence against Black women, I can only hope that in 2045 - 27 years from now, we are not still haunted with these same ghosts of violence, silencing, and denial of Black women’s experiences."--Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez

December 2018

CNN Business

Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez was interviewed by Julia Carpenter for her CNN Business article, Minority employees are often asked to work double-duty.

This "double shift" is common in many workplaces. White, cisgender or straight colleagues may be fearful of accidentally saying the wrong thing. So instead, they task employees of different races, backgrounds or sexual orientations with the "diversity work" that otherwise wouldn't get done.

"I don't think people realize how much emotional time it takes and how much physical time it takes," says Jennifer Gómez, . . . Wayne State University. "I believe that oftentimes it's seen as 'It's not my issue. I'm a white person. Racism isn't my issue. It's not about me. It's about those people over there.' and really, diversity and equity is everyone's responsibility."

November 2018

Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship

Awarded the Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship, administered by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, & Medicine

From Wayne State University Graduate School article:

"Being a PFT fellow is truly a dream job for me as a junior researcher who wants to make my career at Wayne State,” says Gómez. The Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship will support her work in developing and validating a culturally sensitive measure of CBTT on black emergent adults. “Known as the Cultural Betrayal Multidimensional Inventory,” she explains, “this measure will engender needed research on mental health and personal growth in black people who experience both violence and discrimination.”

March 2018

United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs

With Help Not Handcuffs, Inc., presented Institutional Betrayal Against People Who Use Drugs as part of the panel, How The Treatment/Recovery Narrative Perpetuates Harm and Human Rights Violations at the 61st Session of the United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs in Vienna, Austria.

My portion of the full panel.

As of 25 August 2019, this video has been viewed over 100 times

March 2018

CNN Money

Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez was interviewed by Julia Carpenter for her CNN Money article, The 'Emotional Tax' Afflicting Women of Color at Work.

This is where offices and managers can step in to lift the burden, experts say. The first step is focusing on retention as well as recruitment.

"Don't just focus on getting people here, but listening when they are here," Gómez says. "Sometimes in the workplace it can be 'OK, we have two women of color on staff, they're gonna be in charge of the diversity committee and they're gonna fix it.' If we want to make this workplace one that isn't rife with racism, sexism, and sexual harassment, then it's all of our jobs."

March 2018

NIH NICHD Trainee Award

Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez was a Trainee Award for the 2018 Summer Training Institute for Research in Child Abuse and Neglect, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)

January 2018


Featured in the Wayne State University Spotlight on Postdoctoral Scholar Series for Cultural Betrayal Trauma Theory

December 2017


Work featured in article, "New Trauma Theory Examines Cultural Betrayal" in the Wayne State University Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute newsletter, Imprints.

"Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez, MPSI’s new post-doctoral fellow, has revealed yet another critical factor: cultural betrayal. . . 'If a Black woman is raped by a Black man, the racial loyalty is also disrupted. A member of her ‘group’ has turned on her,' Dr. Gómez said. These effects happen in ethnic minority groups, because years of racial oppression by 'outsiders' can foster deep loyalty between members. Members unite for support, validation and a sense of community. This circle of trust can be protective and secure. When within-group violence between members breaks this (intra)cultural trust, though, the effects of this cultural betrayal trauma can intensify. The victim may feel shunned by the group that used to protect her. She may have no safe haven, no one to trust."

November 2017

Top 10 Most Cited Article of 2016

Are Hallucinations Related to Betrayal Trauma Exposure? A Three-Study Exploration among the top 10 most cited articles of 2016 in Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, & Policy

Authors: Jennifer M. Gómez, Laura A. Kaehler, & Jennifer J. Freyd

August 2017

Outstanding Dissertation in the Field of Trauma Psychology

Awarded by the American Psychological Association Division 56 to Jennifer M. Gómez for Cultural Betrayal Trauma Theory.

June 2017

National Center for Institutional Diversity (NCID): Diversity Scholars Network

Invited Member

"Members of the Network are identified for their commitment and contribution to diversity research and scholarship." - Diversity Scholars Network

March 2017

Best Article of 2016

"Shifting the focus: Nonpathologizing approaches to healing from betrayal trauma through an emphasis on relational care" won the Richard P. Kluft Award for Journal of Trauma & Dissociation 2016 Best Article!

Authors: Jennifer M. Gómez, Jenn Lewis, Laura K. Noll, Alec Smidt, & Pamela Birrell

"This article provides an excellent framework for understanding the complexities of working with survivors of trauma. It successfully describes the danger in pathologizing reactions to extreme stress and discusses an adaptive treatment model, relational cultural therapy, that emphasizes the importance of the relationship when working with survivors. The article incorporates both empirically supported treatment options as well as influences from all spheres of the socioecological model, including the importance of empowerment, in treating individuals who have experienced complex trauma." -JTD Selection Committee

As of 25 August 2019, the article has received over 6,750 views.

March 2017

Cited in Annual Report of the Director of Public Health

The above article was quoted in the Annual Report of the Director of Public Health, Adverse Childhood Experiences, Resilience and Trauma Informed Care: A Public Health Approach to Understanding and Responding to Adversity. (Scotland)

"There is a risk that professionals are seen as placing the ‘pathology of trauma within the individual - often an individual who has been deeply betrayed - instead of within the person(s) or environment(s) responsible for the betrayal’121. Gomez et al argue that ‘a nonpathologising model of trauma takes the stance that the abnormality is generally in the situation rather than the person. When the trauma is relational, it is the nature of the act that is unhealthy and not the individual who has experienced the act.’"--p. 52

Featured Work

My dissertation on cultural betrayal trauma theory is featured in The Association of Black Psychologists Student Circle Research webpage.

February 2017

Editorial on APA and the Hoffman Report

"Collusion, Torture, and Inequality: Understanding the Actions of the American Psychological Association as Institutional Betrayal" has been published in the Journal of Trauma & Dissociation.

Authors: Jennifer M. Gómez, Carly P. Smith, Robyn L. Gobin, Shin Shin Tang, & Jennifer J. Freyd

As of 25 August 2019, the article has received over 3,400 views.

July 2016

Feature Story

University of Oregon Graduate School ran a feature on my work with cultural betrayal trauma theory, entitled, "A Promising Scholar’s path from ballet to her own theory about culture and betrayal in trauma."

"Gómez consulted Crenshaw’s Theory of Intersectionality, bell hooks Education as a Practice of Freedom, Audre Lorde’s Sister Outsider, and Freyd’s Betrayal Trauma Theory for her dissertation, which argues that within-group violence for minorities is uniquely harmful because of existing oppression . . . Cultural Betrayal Trauma Theory . . . hypothesizes that the harm of traumas such as physical assault, sexual assault, child abuse, incest, and domestic violence can be exacerbated by a cultural betrayal implicit in within-group violence in minority populations and associated with diverse outcomes, such as PTSD, depression, and internalized prejudice."- University of Oregon Graduate School.

March 2016


Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez

External Funding
Internal Funding


Cultural Betrayal Trauma Theory

Curriculum Vitae

Table of Contents

For Cultural Betrayal Trauma Theory (CBTT)

  1. CBTT Description with a Short Video
  2. CBTT Description with figures
  3. CBTT Terminology
  4. Condemned to Dance: Arts-Based Research Project
  5. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
  6. CBTT Funding
  7. CBTT Publications

CBTT Description with a Short Video


In this short video [2019], Dr. Jennifer M. Gómez explains cultural betrayal trauma theory and discusses her article, "Isn't It All About Victimization? (Intra)Cultural Pressure and Cultural Betrayal Trauma in Ethnic Minority College Women", which was published in Violence Against Women.

Short article on Cultural Betrayal Trauma Theory from The Conversation: The Unique Harm of Sexual Abuse in the Black Community.

CBTT Description with Figures

Individuals' experiences are impacted by aspects of the sociocultural context. For minorities, such as Black people in the U.S., who have experienced interpersonal trauma (e.g., physical, sexual, psychological abuse), that context includes inequality at various levels.

In cultural betrayal trauma theory, I propose that societal trauma (e.g., discrimination) creates the context for interpersonal trauma within minority groups to be uniquely harmful.

Cultural betrayal trauma theory incorporates various aspects of the sociocultural context, such as societal trauma (e.g., discrimination) and (intra)cultural trust. Consequently, interpersonal trauma within minority groups--termed cultural betrayal trauma--may be linked with diverse outcomes, including PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) and internalized prejudice.

CBTT Terminology

The term "victim" is used to emphasize the harm of victimization, as well as for brevity. Preferred language is "person who has been victimized," which does not impose a label onto a person based on something they have experienced.


  • A person who has one or more identities that are marginalized in society
  • Examples: in the U.S., people of color, LGBTQ+, Muslims, women

Societal Trauma

  • Negative experiences that systemically occur at the societal level
  • Examples: attempted genocide, discrimination, oppression, second-class citizenship, racialized police brutality

(Intra)Cultural Trust

  • Connection (e.g., dependency, attachment, loyalty, love, and/or responsibility) with other members of one's minority group(s), potentially as a buffer against societal trauma
  • Examples: the "sweet sense of solidarity" with other minorities, in which there is an expectation of understanding and support; personal connection with the successes, joys, failures, and harms of one's minority group(s)

Cultural Betrayal

  • From a fellow minority, violation of (intra)cultural trust in the form of trauma, abuse, violation, or other negative occurrences
  • Examples: being rejected by other members of one's minority group; being accused of 'acting White' by other racial minorities

Cultural Betrayal Trauma

  • Violation of (intra)cultural trust through interpersonal trauma (physical, sexual, or psychological abuse); the victim and perpetrator(s) share at least one minority identity
  • Examples: within-group violence in minority populations (e.g., minority perpetrator, minority victim)

(Intra)Cultural Support

  • An extension of (intra)cultural trust. The needs of the victim are as important as the needs of the minority group. Victim is supported in the aftermath of victimization, as well as in the tensions created by inequality (e.g., need to protect the Black community from discriminatory systems)
  • Examples: being told that you are not responsible for protecting the person(s) who victimized you; helping you think of the pros and cons of disclosing to formal sources, including those that have been and/or continue to be discriminatory against Black people

(Intra)Cultural Pressure

  • Resulting from societal trauma, a negative transformation of (intra)cultural trust; the needs of victims of cultural betrayal trauma are overshadowed by the perceived needs of the perpetrator and/or the entire minority group
  • Examples: being told by a fellow minority to keep problems "in house" and not disclose to law enforcement, therapists, etc. because doing so would reflect poorly on and/or harm the perpetrator, other members of the minority group, and/or the minority group as a whole

Abuse Outcomes

  • Typically-studied outcomes of interpersonal trauma
  • Examples: PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder); depression; anxiety

Cultural Outcomes

  • Currently un-studied or under-studied outcomes of interpersonal trauma that are identity, cultural, or sociocultural in nature
  • Examples: internalized prejudice; changes to identification with minority identity

© Jennifer M. Gómez, 2018

Condemned To Dance: Cultural Betrayal Trauma Theory

Condemned To Dance: Cultural Betrayal Trauma Theory is an arts-based research project (dissertation and choreography by Jennifer M. Gómez) that tells the story of a fictional group of people called the Wigglies, who are hurt by Oppression and endure cultural betrayal trauma through dance.

As of 12 April 2019, the video has received over 2,300 views.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

  • Does CBTT treat all minorities as if they are the same?

No. With CBTT, both within-group differences and between-group differences can be systematically examined.

  • Does CBTT propose that there is more trauma, violence, and abuse within minority groups?

No. CBTT says nothing about prevalence of trauma, as within-group trauma occurs across majority and minority groups.

  • Does CBTT assume that between-group trauma—particularly with majority perpetrators and minority victims—is not harmful?

No. CBTT focuses on one facet of trauma (within-group) and does not speak to other forms of trauma (between-group) that themselves may be uniquely harmful in their own way.

  • Does CBTT ignore all the other harmful aspects of trauma (e.g., severity, high betrayal)?

No. CBTT highlights cultural betrayal as a specific contributing factor of trauma outcomes, but also includes characteristics of trauma, interpersonal betrayal, institutional betrayal, judicial betrayal, and other factors.

  • Does CBTT presume that perpetrators of cultural betrayal trauma are actively trying to betray?

No. Similar to betrayal trauma theory, the intent of perpetrators is distinct from the betrayal implicit in the trauma.

  • Do victims of trauma need to explicitly feel cultural betrayal for it to count as such?

No. However, future research should explore if outcomes vary based on individuals' perceptions of cultural betrayal in the trauma.

  • Does CBTT ignore the complexity of identity?

No. CBTT is informed by intersectionality and multiplicity. There are various types of cultural betrayal that a single individual could experience (e.g., ethno-cultural betrayal; gender-cultural betrayal).

  • Isn't CBTT a cultural betrayal in and of itself, as it highlights trauma, violence, and abuse that occurs within minority groups?

No. The ultimate determinant of cultural betrayal is societal trauma. The next responsible party are perpetrators for violating (intra)cultural trust. Disclosing and/or discussing cultural betrayal trauma is not a cultural betrayal.

© Jennifer M. Gómez, 2016

CBTT Funding

External Funding
Internal Funding

CBTT Publications

Book Chapters/Dissertation/Scholarly
  • Adams-Clark, A., Gómez, J. M., Gobin, R. L., Noll, L. K., & Delker, B. (in press). Impact of interpersonal, family, cultural, and institutional betrayal on adult survivors of abuse. Handbook of Interpersonal Violence Across the Lifespan.

  • Gómez, J. M., Noll, L. K., Adams-Clark, A., & Courtois, C. (in press). Colleague betrayal in sexual boundary violations in therapy. Sexual Boundary Violations in Psychotherapy: Therapist Indiscretions & Transgressions. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

  • Gómez, J. M. (2020). Exposure to discrimination, cultural betrayal, and intoxication as a Black female graduate student applying for tenure-track faculty positions. In Y. F. Niemann, G. Gutierrez y Muhs, & C. G. Gonzalez (Eds.), Presumed Incompetent II: Race, Class, Power, & Resistance of Women in Academia (pp. 204-214). Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.

  • Gómez, J. M., & Freyd, J. J. (2019). Betrayal trauma. In J. J. Ponzetti (Ed.), Macmillan Encyclopedia of Intimate and Family Relationships: An Interdisciplinary Approach (pp. 79-82). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning Inc.

  • Gómez, J. M. (2016, May 11). Cultural betrayal trauma theory. [Dissertation].

  • Gómez, J. M. (2015). Conceptualizing trauma: In pursuit of culturally relevant research. Trauma Psychology Newsletter (American Psychological Association Division 56), 10, 40-44.

  • Gómez, J. (2015). Rape, Black men, and the degraded Black woman: Feminist psychologists’ role in addressing within-group sexual violence. The Feminist Psychologist: Newsletter for the Society of the Psychology of Women (American Psychological Association Division 35), 42, 12-13.

  • Gómez, J. M. (2012). Cultural betrayal trauma theory: The impact of culture on the effects of trauma. In Blind to Betrayal.

Public Scholarship